ONCOLOGY DISEASES


LIVER CANCER

Liver cancer is the sixth most common cancer and the second leading cause of death globally.  The 5-year survival rate is very low (5%) because very often the disease is diagnosed when already in an advanced stage.  The incidence varies according to the geographical area (it is more widespread in Asia than in Europe).  In Italy it is rarer and represents 3% of all new diagnoses of cancer with a 2:1 men to women ratio (13,000 cases reported in 2017).

PANCREATIC CANCER

It is a disease in which pancreatic cells grow and multiply in an uncontrolled manner. The majority of pancreatic cancers (approximately 70%) originates in the exocrine pancreas and is called pancreatic adenocarcinomas.

PROSTATE CANCER

Uncontrolled growth of the cells inside the prostate results in the formation of cancer tissue. Almost all prostate cancers originate from glandular cells, hence they are called adenocarcinomas. In rare cases, sarcomas and carcinomas can also develop.

TUMORS OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

The CNS can be affected by a neoplasia in any of its parts (brain, cerebellum, meninges, etc.), and for this reason there are a number of different types of tumor. Tumors originating in the CNS are rare (1.6% of all tumors), whereas metastasis secondary to cancer cells migrating from other body districts (e.g., breast, lung, skin, liver) to the brain are more frequent.

CANCER OF THE HEAD AND NECK

Cancer of the head and neck are tumors affecting the oral cavity (lips, tongue, cheeks, gums, palate, and tonsil pillars), throat, larynx, pharynx, nose, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands, thyroid, and parathyroid. The most frequent types of cancer are those affecting the larynx, the pharynx, and the oral cavity.